Categories of Ice Cream and Its Preparation Rules

Published: 2021-06-17 08:29:33
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Category: Cooking, Eating

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Ice cream is a kind of frozen food made by drinking water, milk powder, cream (or vegetable fat), sugar, etc. Ice cream and related products can be divided into a number of categories, and legislation varies from one country to another. Furthermore, soft serve, ordinary, and hardened ice cream are distinguished. Soft ice is eaten while fresh. It is made on the spot, its temperature is usually −3 to −5°C, and, therefore, it still contains a fairly large amount of non-frozen water; generally, its fat content and overrun are rather low. Hardened ice cream, usually packaged in small portions and sometimes supplied with an external chocolate coating, is much lower in temperature (say, −25°C). The solution remaining is in a glassy state, and it has a shelf life of several months. Ordinary ice cream has a lower temperature than that of soft ice cream (−10 to −15°C), but is not so cold as to be entirely solid; it is stored for a few weeks at the most in cans, from which portions can be ladled out.
Milk or cream of impeccable flavor is needed, especially with respect to rancidity and autoxidation. The latter defect may occur in hardened ice cream because it is stored for long periods, and its water activity is rather low; it contains a great deal of oxygen. Therefore, contamination by copper has to be rigorously avoided.Soft ice cream often causes microbiological problems, though it is kept cold and its high sugar content may, to some extent, act as a preservative. Pathogenic organisms will not grow, but they are not killed. Bacteria are enabled to grow if the temperature becomes too high locally or temporarily, as can easily happen with the practices at vending places. Abundant growth can occur in poorly cleaned processing equipment and in the mix, if stored for too long. Hence, strict hygienic measures have to be taken. Large numbers of enterobacteria (E. coli, Salmonella spp.) are frequently found. ‘The first stages of the manufacture need little elaboration. Composing the mix is relatively simple. The additives are ‘emulsifier,’ stabilizer (a thickening agent, usually a mixture of polysaccharides), and flavor and color substances.
Pasteurization of the mix primarily serves to kill pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Additives added after homogenization should usually be pasteurized separately. The second important objective is to inactivate lipase because it is still a little active even at a very low temperature.
Homogenization is specifically meant to give the ice cream a sufficiently fine, smooth texture.
Cooling and ripening (keeping cold for some time) are desirable for two reasons. The fat in most of the fat globules should largely be crystallized before the ice cream mix enters the freezer; it is important to note that considerable undercooling may occur because the fat globules are very small (Subsection. Certain stabilizers such as gelatin and locust bean gum need considerable time to swell after being dispersed. Some added emulsifiers need considerable time at low temperature to displace protein from the fat globules.
Freezing implies rapid cooling of the mix to a few degrees below zero; in this way, ice is formed while air is beaten in. This must run simultaneously: after the bulk of the water is frozen, any beating in of air becomes impossible, and freezing after air is beaten in leads to insufficient churning of the fat globules and can damage the foam structure.

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