Analysis of Weight Distribution in Term of Forces and Torques During Lifting Weight Using Digital Human Modelling

Published: 2021-06-17 06:31:20
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Category: Computer Science, Architecture

Type of paper: Essay

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Abstract
Construction activities performed by workers are usually repetitive and physically demanding. Execution of such tasks in awkward postures can strain the body parts and can result in fatigue, back pain or in severe cases permanent disabilities. In view of this Digital human modelling (DHM) technology offers human factors/ergonomics experts the facilities of an efficient means of kinematics characteristics of lifting heavy weights in different postures. The objective of this paper is to analyse and calculate the forces and torques on the different body parts during lifting weights in four different postures using Digital Human Modelling software. For this purposes four different lifting postures were analysed and the forces and torques were calculated. It was identified that changing the postures considerably minimize the redundant stresses on the body muscles.
Introduction
The ILO estimates that some 2. 3 million women and men around the world succumb to work-related accidents or diseases every year; this corresponds to over 6000 deaths every single day. Worldwide, there are around 340 million occupational accidents and 160 million victims of work-related illnesses annually. Over the years, manufacturing companies have taken ergonomics and usability as basic parameters of quality for their products. The design approach has been reviewed, giving to the end-users’ needs, requests, and limitations an extensive consideration.For this reason, an increasing attention is currently devoted to ergonomics and human factors evaluations even from the early stages of the design process. Digital Mock-Ups (DMUs) provided by many computer aided engineering applications enable manufacturers to design a digital prototype of a product in full details, simulating its functions and predicting interaction among its different components. The production of physical prototypes, which is a very time consuming task, is then deferred to the final stages of the design process.
In order to take advantage of digital simulations to conduct ergonomic assessments (computer aided ergonomics), digital substitutes of human beings capable of interacting with the DMUs in the simulation environment are required. This has given birth to the so-called digital human modelling (DHM), which led to the development of many software tools. These tools are mainly used to study human–product and human–process interaction and to conduct ergonomic and biomechanical analyses, as well as manual process simulations, even before the physical prototype is available. DMUs, together with digital human models, are increasingly used in order to reduce the development time and cost, as well as to facilitate the prediction of performance and/or safety. The ergonomic design methodology relying on digital human models makes the iterative process of design evaluation, diagnosis and review more rapid and economical. It increases also the quality by minimizing the redundant changes and improves safety of products by eliminating ergonomics related problems. Furthermore, with the arising of the forth-industrial revolution (Industry 4. 0), the concept of the virtualization of the manufacturing processes has gained a greater importance. In this context, human simulation in production activities will certainly play a significant role. These digitalhumans, provided by many process simulation software, are essentially kinematic chains consisting of several segments and joints.
Methodology
Digital human models are computer-generated prototype of human beings used for biomechanical analysis. The mannequin are design through HumanCAD software to mimic the real life industries workers posture. The facility of Ergo Tool is also available in the software which provide the static biomechanical stress on the different body parts. Four different lifting postures were analysed for forces and torque calculation assigning 20 kg concrete block to be lift.

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