A Comprehensive Review of Nadi Ayurvedic Technique

Published: 2021-06-17 08:32:41
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Ayurveda is the ancient system of medicine which is not only deals with diseases but maintain the integrity of health of an individual. Health is a state which maintains equilibrium among dosha, dhatu, and mala along with health of body, mind and soul. It deals with both physical as well as psychic level. Any qualitative or quantitative variation among these causes disruption in consistency of body resulting ill health. The eight folds of examination i.e. Nadi pariksha is first one among the eight examinations of patient i.e. Nadi (Pulse), Mootra (Urine), Malam (Fecal matter), Jihwa (Tongue), Sabdam (Voice of patients), Sparsham (Touch), Drik (Eyes & Vision), Akriti (General body build) furnish the knowledge of subtle variations helping to ascertain physiology of body. Pulse examination is the first among eight examinations. The numbers of method of disease testing are prevalent in the world and among them the pulse examination is the oldest. In ancient time, nadi was considered to be the proof of survival.
Nadi is said to be biological evidence representing disruption along with wellbeing. Theory of tridosha is root source of pulse examination. Balance and imbalance of tridosha is responsible health and disease respectively. Acharya has alienated the both aspects by feeling sensation of pulse. Nadi is a source to know any type of variation in body with cause of variation. The aim of this paper is to remind the scholars about this technique which has been mentioned in various ayurvedic texts.All agents either destroying or promoting health are circulated through heart. They also influence the functioning of heart ultimately body. Along with this, the effect of anger, attachment, greed, etc. also affects the mind of men and also on the mind. Therefore, both the physical and mental disorders are detected by pulse science. The location of the heart is described as urah and the place of mind in the head and the relationship between these two is given by acharya bhela. Heart is the root of all blood vessels, so the dosha are transmitted by the blood vessels to the whole body. The ashrya (site) of the disease both the mind and body, and pulse examination reflect the body at every aspect. Acharya has compared pattern of nadi with the speed of different animals for differentiation in different conditions. So that, one can gets an approximation of different pattern and speed. It demonstrates that one needs a lot of practice to become a master in the pulse examination. They are much difficult to feel as well as to differentiate. For easy and quick differentiation, patterns of pulse are described as comparing with creatures. But when the pulse practice becomes vigilant in the examination, the pulse examination begins to indicate the same disease for him just like the wires of the veena (Harp strings) expresses all kinds of diseases. In order to know uniqueness of each pattern, doctor should be involved in the pulse testing of patient after performing pulse examination of more healthy persons. It is easy, inexpensive, and quick diagnostic technique. Nadi pariksha leads to the knowledge of whole body diseases. On the basis of the speed of the pulse, the character of its place, etc., there is also the knowledge of dosha. Vascular examination is the simple method of diagnosing all the diseases of the whole body. There is no fear or anxiety of the patient during pulse examination, like the other procedures. Disease is curable or not also it is known. No equipment is required for pulse testing. The pulse examination does not take much time to diagnose. The person, who cannot tell the doctor about the diseases related to the disease, can also treat the doctor for pulse examination. One has to take special precautions during pulse examination, because the things which are not feel able which is not known, they have to be hypothesized too. Therefore concentration and continuous practice is the key to be a master, to achieve efficiency in this physiological science. On the basis of ancient text, one who have the ability to draw a conclusion after correlating the results obtained from different results of pulse, he will be able to diagnose as well as severity of the disease through it. Due to systole and diastole of heart the pulsation is felt in arteries, which is felt in nadi pariksha. The velocity is caused by vyanvayu.
In the wrist joint one angul below the root of thumb, index finger, middle finger and ring finger is put to know the status of dosha at that time in particular person. Below the index finger vatadosha, below middle pitta and below ring finger kapha dosha is assessed.
In this examination strength, rhythm and speed of pulse are observed to make a Diagnosis.
Importance of manya and matrika is as much as of jiwsakshini. Vata is laghu (light) chalavayavayi so keep ahead, then pitta which is relatively less heavy, liquid and sara guna and consequently kapha which is more heavy pichila and bhisyandi. So the sequence is character of tridosha as a standard. Pulse reflects diagnosis either individual is healthy or not.
Norms of examination: The signals are felt by placing the fingers such that the index finger is towards the hand of the subject and ring finger is towards the heart. Doctor must be tested diligently with a frank mind. Also should be devoid of physical and mental disruption of self. If he is diseased or is suffering from any effort or anger, he cannot be sure about assessment of pulse. During the pulse examination, the physician should sit happily oriented or north-facing. With the happiness of the intellect, it should be tested with a fixed mind and a pulse test. There should not be urge at all while performing the pulse examination otherwise concentration is not made. Pulse examination should be done for at least 2 minutes without any hasten. Examination should not perform in standing position; doctor should perform this in sitting position of patient. The pulse test should be performed empty stomach in the morning. The patient should perform a pulse test by sitting or lying down comfortably. Put the two hands in the side of the laid patient and keep the pulse test by turning slightly towards the body. The doctor should keep the hand below the elbow in front Keep the doctor in front of the sitting patient on his left hand. The doctor should perform a pulse examination by the three finger forefinger middle finger ring finger from his right hand. If the hands are very cold, then they should be warmed by mutual contact. Practitioners carefully examine pulse at different depths; each connected with a specific part of the body and believed to register even the slightest physiological based changes. Vatta, Pitta and Kapha move. Acharya has stated that rhythm of pulse varies from time to time and day to day. Kaphaj pulse is predominant in the morning time. Pittaj pulse is predominant during mid-day. Vattaj pulse can be observed in late afternoon and evening.
Related with patient
The patient should not have any kind of urge. He should be relaxed, after a little time examination should perform. Patient should not suffer from hunger and thirst or not eaten immediately. One should not came from direct sun exposure. Do not take immediate pulse examination after exercising and bathing or without direct sun exposure. The patient should not have sex. Hungry stomach not too hunger and not too much eaten. The patient has not been drinking. The mind becomes fickle from work anger etc. So do not take pulse tests. These expressions should be examined only after being calm. After consuming any medicines or other substances, pulse examination should not be done. The patient should not scrutinize the pulse examination, should he put a pulse examination.
Due to all these reasons, changes in pulse motion and the real nature of pulse cannot be known. Due to obstruction of natural urges, vata get aggravated, ultimately affect the pulse motion. There are eight important nadis in body which are having identical consequences. Among them two are in hasthanadis, which are located at the end of prakoshta (forearm) and three inches below the manibandha (wrist). Two are pada nadi; these are located below gulpha (ankle) around three inches level.
Two are in kantha (neck). These are located at the root of the neck in both sides around one inch level. Another two are nasamulagata nadi, which are located around one inch at nasamulam (root of nose).Nadi in relation to disruption.
A) To know the ayu (life span), laghutva (lightness), swasthya (health) and jwara vimochan, Piragua Nadi should be examined.
B) To know the jeeva niryam (death), hastagata nadi should be examined.
C) To know ajeerna (Indigestion), ama dosha, jwara (arrival of fever), kshudham (appetite) and aggravation vata, pitta kapha, hasta nadi should be examined.
D) To know aganthuka jwara, thrishna (thirst), ayaasa (dyspnoea), maithuan-klamana (fatigue due to copulation), bhaya (fear), soka (sorrow), kopa (anger), kanta nadi should be examined.
E) To know about mrityu (death), kama (desire), netraroga (eye disorder), sirovyatha (head ache), sravana (ear) mukharogas (mouth), nasa nadi should be examined.
The nadi of male and female can be differentiated as in females nabhikurma is in upward direction, where as in males it is down ward. In male right hand, in female left hand and in napumsak according to male and female division right or left hand should be examined.
As a lamp shines the things differently nadi fluctuates reflectingdifferences among baala, vriddha, unmattha (mad), abhinyasa peedita (fever), yoga purusha (good personality) etc.
Arrhythmic and Valvular heart disease states can very well be traced in ancient Ayurvedic Pulse examination. Pulse examination is imperative tool for diagnosis of physical or psychic disruption. Pulse examination is tactile assessment of systolic blood pressure (heart beat). Diastolic blood pressure is non-palpable and unobservable by tactile methods, which occurs between heartbeats. Pulse rate depend upon heart contraction. The variation of pressure in arteries generates different patterns of pulsations. Pulse directly reflects pathology of valvular heart disease. But acharya has provided various clue for estimation of health along with prognosis and life span of an individual.
Patient having weak (small) and rapid pulse, whose body is cold, should be considered as dying. Patient having weak, rapid, full and wet pulse which disappears intermittently indicates bad prognosis of disease. Patients having very fast pulse like bee, lives only for one day. Patient having pulse in vibration rich similar to musical drum lives for one day only. Patient having no pulse and with clod extremities should not be treated since he will die.
Discussion
Nadi pariksha is valuable technique for assessment of tridosha which are base of disease diagnosis, prognosis as well as in treatment. As per ayurveda balanced dosha represents health while vitiated dosha leads to disease. Yogarattnakar, has explored the scientific value of nadi pariksha, nadi is similar to strings of veena can play all the ragas, likewise nadi can perceive any type of irregularity in body. The speed, gati strength of pulse varies with aggravated dosha and balanced dosha. Assessment of nadi is highly depending upon practice and experience of physician, as it needs subtle intellect. In modern medical science the pulse examination has been given much stress but it is limited to only cardiovascular examination. In ayurveda has elaborated the scientific value of by considering first among systemic examination.
Various segments of normal arterial blood pressure waveform (1) systolic upstroke, (2) systolic peak pressure, (3) systolic decline, (4) dicrotic notch, (5) diastolic runoff and (6) end-diastolic pressure are correlated with electrocardiographic R wave in the time sequence in Figure 2b. At the end of systole phase of heart, when aortic valve closes, a rebound action of the arterial blood results in a small dicrotic notch and the diastole phase of the heart start. Many studies have done, trying toelaborate the physiological significance in relation to gati (movement), vega (rate), tala (rhythm), bala (force), akriti (volume and tension) with hemodynamic and statically analysis of pulse pattern[endnoteRef:9]. According to modern sciences pulse can be correlated with pulse properties and different types along with any irregularity. Tridosha can be associated with three types of pulse pattern variability (PPV) such as seasonal changes, physical strength, post lunch, breathing process, metabolic process.
CONCLUSION
In all the medical practices of the world, patient is the test of pulse examination in the examinations. But as far as the detailed idea is done in ayurveda, no other medical method has been done. The pulse examination has become synonymous with disease diagnosis. A patient expects a physician to diagnose the disease by examining his pulse. Pulse is mainly a subtle expression of universal consciousness pulsating through a person’s constitution which carries blood through the body along with the nutrients to the cellular level. Ayurved has rich experience in pulse based diagnosis, as traditional ayurvedic practitioners were expert in pulse based diagnosis which is efficient and accurate diagnosis diagnose the disease by fingers without any equipment. The backbone of Ayurveda depends on the method of sensation of variation by these three waveforms and discrepancies in them.

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